Which Something Positive character are you? | home | There I Find Delight: Psalm 119:1-8

July 31, 2004

Should Women be allowed to Preach?

1 Timothy 2:11-12 11 A woman must quietly receive instruction with entire submissiveness. 12 But I do not allow a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man, but to remain quiet. 13 For it was Adam who was first created, and then Eve.

Should a woman be allowed to be a deacon(ess) or an elder in a church?
I would say that it goes against scripture to allow deaconesses or women elders (pastors). While many women out there could clearly teach me a thing or two about God and scripture, that would go against the model of federal headship. Man is the head of the family…

1 Corinthians 11:3 3 But I want you to understand that Christ is the head of every man, and the man is the head of a woman, and God is the head of Christ.

Ephesians 5:22-24 22 Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. 23 For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body. 24 But as the church is subject to Christ, so also the wives ought to be to their husbands in everything.

Why would a woman be allowed to, say, lead a children’s ministry, but not be an administrative pastor of a church?
The key to whether women can teach a children’s ministry is in that they are not teaching men but rather children. These children should still be getting spiritual instruction from their fathers and mothers but are not ready to study on their own. A woman is capable of giving instruction but must submit to God’s authority and instructions.

Titus 2:3-5 3 Older women likewise are to be reverent in their behavior, not malicious gossips nor enslaved to much wine, teaching what is good, 4 so that they may encourage the young women to love their husbands, to love their children, 5 to be sensible, pure, workers at home, kind, being subject to their own husbands, so that the word of God will not be dishonored

Would you let a woman be a guest speaker and give a sermon?
This is more difficult because a woman could be a very valuable guest speaker, but is that acceptable. I guess it depends on the context of the situation; is it topical or is it preaching? Does that even matter? I would be uncomfortable to have a woman as a guest speaker or giving a sermon during the service but a separate arena may be preferable – a special “class” or speaking opportunity for example. I have to admit that this is a very slippery slope.

1 Corinthians 14:34-35 34 The women are to keep silent in the churches; for they are not permitted to speak, but are to subject themselves, just as the Law also says. 35 If they desire to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home; for it is improper for a woman to speak in church.

This section follows discussion about speaking in tongues and prophesy and so it may be limited to that concept but I suspect that it may be addressing the issue at Corinth where women may not have been turning to their husbands for spiritual leadership. They may have been trying to circumvent their roles and seeking instruction from other men (not elders) or were even trying to teach other men. I may have tried to cover too many ideas for one post but I hope it makes sense. I’ll respond to any clarifications you have or to expand on these ideas if needed.

When posting arguments for or against, please quote scripture. You can find online bible translations at Bible Gateway. Please understand that I have the utmost respect for Godly women and have no doubt they are very capable of teaching/preaching in the church. It’s just that I understand the scriptures to be God-breathed and true in their entirety. I also understand the scriptures to say that women are not to teach or preach in the church. It never says can’t or incapable of teaching.

Finally, what does this mean in regards to evangelism? Are women not to evangelize? Are they not to share the gospel? I don’t think this is the case. Maybe the instructions from God only applied to the church environment. This may allow for outside studies, books, seminars, children’s ministry, etc.

Note: I respond to comments in bold

UPDATE: this has been re-posted at Blogogetics.com and may have different have to follow.

Share on Twitter or posted to Worship @ 10:07 pm


  • At 7:36 pm on March 31, 2009, Morgan commented:

    In the case of a woman being a pastor at a church I am not quite sure of my position. While it does not state in the bible (to my knowledge) that no women, anywhere, ever, should be pastors it does say that women should be subordinate to their husbands and that the husband is her spiritual leader.

    So the question I do have is can a woman be the pastor of a church and still be led by her husband? And what is correct in the matter if a woman is not married?

    I do believe that people meet this discussion with anger and passion because in worldly views we are told that we are all equal in the same way. But in the bible, while we are equal in God’s eyes, we play different parts in our lives.

    When people read this post I think they may get the idea that it is an attempt to keep women below men. I do not go along with that thinking, however I am skeptical about the evidence behind it. I am genuinely curious.

  • At 9:42 am on April 1, 2009, archshrk commented:

    I think you’ve hit the nail on the head. This is not an easy subject to discuss, partly because we bring in so many preconceptions. I’ve tried to illustrate from various parts of scripture how we should approach this but a lot of people still feel its about suppressing women.

    If you follow the comments you’ll see some of the objections raised and my response, but to address your specific questions – A woman who is not married should be under her father’s spiritual leadership, and he under Christ’s leadership.

    The problem we face in this discussion is that many women can’t see themselves submitting to men – and they shouldn’t. As you said, they submit to their husband – but so many women also marry men who are unworthy of that submission.

    My advice – if a woman feels called to lead a church, she should marry a man who can be HER spiritual leader, and HE can lead a church with her as his Helper Suitable. I often worry about single pastors. The burden is too much to lead a church alone, and a plurality of elders (multiple pastors) can’t provide the support a good wife can.

  • At 9:47 am on April 1, 2009, Jon commented:

    God Bless you archshrk! That’s exactly what the problem is. The women that respond think it’s about putting them down. Furthermore, you’re exactly right about the submission part. Take it easy!

  • At 9:52 am on June 18, 2009, Tracey C. commented:

    If God commands us to “go ye therefore and preach to all nations”…why would he eliminate half the population by only allowing men this ability? I believe this is deception at its finest. Think of the time wasted trying to determine if a male or female has God’s approval for preaching when we all could be preaching His word. God says he does not show favoritism. He refers to us as “sons and daughters” in New Testament, which is not referenced in the Old Testament. This means spiritual equality in God’s eyes. Does it matter if a man or woman is used to bring salvation to another person with God? Does it? I know male preachers who need to step down; they are hurting and stifling God’s work. There are women preachers who can set a fire any congregation for the Lord. And in these latter 2 examples-vice versa. Should we look at the effectiveness of their leadership-are they preaching the truth-are people being led to the Lord? The answer about which sex to preach is unclear, but the qualifications of a leader for God is; why don’t we focus on those characteristics?

  • At 9:32 am on June 20, 2009, Melody commented:

    I find it amusing that so many people get upset over this issue. It isn’t like you wrote the Bible. As a woman, my instinct is to be offended at the idea that I cannot hold a position of authority, but who am I to question God’s directions? I think that is what is wrong with the world today. we have all forgotten our roles. The most important thing a woman can do is create a loving God-filled home in which to raise her children. When we walked away from God’s plan for raising our families and chose the “glory” of the workplace instead, our society fell into disarray. I do agree that our men have failed as leaders in the house of God. We need our men to return to the ways of God and step up and lead our wives and children to the path of God. They have lost their place because we as mothers were to busy working to provide the spiritual instruction they needed as children. We as women ate the apple, not just once, but over and over again in our silly, petty desire to escape God’s law. we were tempted by money and independence offered in the workforce, and as a result we sold our families and God’s will in our lives. (PS: I am a working woman who has been married for 25 years. Unfortunately, I don’t know how we get back to the proper heirarchy in this modern society. How can we afford to live without two incomes today? I guess this diatribe makes me a bit of a hypocrite.)

  • At 9:10 am on June 22, 2009, Jon commented:

    Melody, I agree with you 100%! You couldn’t be anymore correct. Women are getting offended and not seeing the issue for what it is. You are so on point! Thank you! It makes me feel to know that there are some women out here with some sense. God bless you!

  • At 4:34 pm on June 24, 2009, Robin Johnson commented:

    I get offended when the issue is addressed in a hostile manner, such as calling the woman who preaches a Jezebel or reacting in anger that the woman is preaching — some of the women I have heard are quite good — actually there is a female pastor whose church my sister attends — she’s excellent. I am single and have never been married — the scriptures say that older women should teach younger women how to take care of their homes — well that’s great but my interests do not lie there —

  • At 12:04 pm on July 4, 2009, Bro R.C. Willis Gospel Preacher commented:

    Women dont let this get you down that the bible teaches you are not allowed to pastor, the bible has other areas that seem unfair, no sex outside of marriage, no divoice, no speaking in tougues unless someones persent that can interpet what is being said. we have to accept that our ways are not GODs ways neither our thoughts his thoughts. When I first got saved the fornication thing floored me but I accepted what the word says concerning the matter.

  • At 2:44 am on July 25, 2009, Jackie commented:

    This is a very good discussion- There is a very important part in this scripture that we are missing. First and foremost the noted scripture that you are giving coming from 1 Timothy 2; Paul is giving instructions to Timothy on Worship. In 1 Tim 2:12 Paul states “I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authoority over a man; She must be silent.” One key word to this particular scripture is “I”. Paul also stated in verse 9 I also want women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or expensive clothes.” (wow- a lot of us come to church in sin if that is the case)

    My point is this, when Paul was giving instructions-these were his personal preferences in which he was leading his son, Timothy. I will take it a step further—In 1 Corinthians 7 verse 8 Now to the unmarried and the widows, I say: It is good for them to stay unmarried , as I am-
    Verse 10 To the married I give this command ( not I, but the Lord) A wife must not separate from her husband. He uses the words, “I say this”.
    What do you think?

    In the Greek and Hebrew language to preach is to “herald or announce the good news”. If you research this you will find it. Teach in Hebrew is to enlighten, to know, to pierce- Greek it means to instruct differently, to proclaim, to train up”
    We are teaching and proclaiming the word of God to the lost, and training others as God has instructed.

    Jesus said’ No divorce except for adultery”. Paul says “yes it is okay to divorce-live in peace)( see 1 Corinthians 7)

    The question is-is it wrong? I do not believe it is. Is it right? questionable. Is it permissable- YES- as unto the Lord.

    I would also like to bring out 1 Corinthians chapter 11 verse 11 “In the Lord a woman is not independent of man, nor is man undependent of a woman. This dealt with prayer and authority of a woman.
    To pastor is to tend to a flock or feed the flock. That is the job of a pastor. To feed the flock. Among the flock will be different gifts and offices operating. -From what I have given- decide for yourself whether it is right or wrong for a woman to preach. When we are judged we will be judge as a man or woman? It is our spirit that will be judged and the deed that we do in our body-not my color, not my statue, not my car, not my clothes-we will be sentenced according to our belief in Jesus Christ. We will be rewarded by our deeds. For this reason, Christ was sent. We are no longer bound by the law, because in it we see that we are sinners, but Christ freed us from this…at the end of the day-did you tell of the good news, and restore one who has wandered from the flock (body of Christ). My dear friends, Church is not “In a building” but it is Christ that lives inside of you. Think on these things-whatsoever is of good report, praise worthy. What disgrace is it for a woman to preach? Is it because of the authoritative speech-boldness in Christ, leading one to Christ, sharing of His good news? Or is it her audacity to “speak boldly what God instructed her through the Holy Spirit.” Is it because she spoke it in a building with men in it or outside where men are? Who is this woman who tells of the Love of Christ and gives instruction from God and is inspired by God in her hearing and in her soul.
    It is amazing that God would give us authority ( increase, might, right, full privilege) to trample over demons and serpents and powers of the enemy. But little power to lead and teach others to Christ! I believe that Paul was inspired in all that was written. I believe that the Bible is the authorative word of God-no doubt. But I also believe that God inspires and reveals His mysteries to us even now. Jesus said in Revelation 22: 12 Behold I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to every one according to what he has done.
    My belief is that some are debating over an issue that is not great. Whether male or female, greek or jew, gentile- Do we believe and are we telling others? Are we edifying. building up, or we living righteous or a sinful life? Are we clean or unclean? Am I leading to Christ or leading away? Relationship or legalism? We waste too much time on issues that divide us.
    Finally in my heart, It doesn’t matter whether you are a male or female, are you leading one to a personal relationship with Christ? Do you love Him enough to stand up proclaim the word of God? Are you holy and righteous and filled with His spirit? Women whether you are allowed to stand in a pulpit or on the floor, still be free in the Lord and Go and do what He has commanded. Love inspite of and do not be dismayed or discourage on this issue. I respect Pastors and leaders who are doing the will of God whether male or female, whether pulpit or classroom, whether 10,000 or whether 20, you are a testimony to and for Jesus Christ.

  • At 7:40 pm on November 8, 2009, Christine commented:

    well when it says to ask your husband. what if a woman doesn’t have a husband. I don’t. =D

  • At 8:00 pm on November 8, 2009, archshrk commented:

    Christine, when a woman does not have a husband, her father would ideally be the spiritual head of her household. Unfortunately, so many men have failed to be godly men so that many women are without a proper spiritual head of household (this is true with ungodly husbands too). If you are in such a situation, then look for a solid church community where the elders could guide you. Let your godly father and/or godly elders train you in the ways of the Lord. Then you will be equipped (when God wills it) to be a “helper suitable”. Many people who object to “submitting to husbands” fail to realize, they need to find a husband worthy of submitting to. I understand not wanting to submit to the men so many women are willing to settle for. Sorry for getting a little off your question.

  • At 10:55 am on January 6, 2010, Djibril Nzeza commented:

    Well this topic is very big and simple, and i read most of the comments. I myself experienced both Man pastor and Woman Pastor, I lived with each one for at least 3 years. They both are equal and and they both seeks God. And both are human being and makes a lot of mistakes. One thing I realize is that on the man side there is more control, stable. Even when problem is involve. And on the women side. Lot of knowledge and Prayer, fasting. But not quitly stable. Like no security. I will say the word of GOD is true, men is the head of the household. The woman can preach very good and pray for a long time, but I just don’t think a woman can lead better than a man. Woman seems to change all the time, very emotional, and say things that they are not suppose to say most of the time infront of people or in church. But men keeps control and yet they still make mistakes and faces problems. They are just nutural leaders. Men’s don’t force to lead it easy but for a women its very diffucult, womens suffers alot they worry about every little thing. I believe the both need each other womens are very powerfull but mens are just natural born leaders. If the man is weak a porwerfull woman can build a weak man, but it is difficult for a powerfull man to build a woman, it not a man’s nature. Women’s are builders and men’s are Leaders. Both plays different roles. The word of God is true

  • At 3:59 pm on February 17, 2010, Curtis commented:

    Whatever ever paul wrote it was from God. because Jesus said in the Gospel if you recieved whom i have sent than you have recieved me and if you recieved me than you have recieved he who sent me(GOD). God has an order to everything. God is not a feminist he just God. it all has to go back to what happened at the beginning. the devil decieved eve making her think she can be like GOD if she eat and than when she did she got adam to eat off it. he wasnt decieved but was convinced by the woman to eat off the tree and so bc of that he cursed the man, woman, and the deciever aka satan. the curse that man recieved was that the ground was cursed for his sake(man sake), in sorrow shalt thou(man) eat of it all the days. basically god was telling man that he has to work with his own hands for the rest of his life which was passed down to all men bc the curse that adam recieved all men recieved it. the curse he gave woman was that He(God) will greatly multiply thy(woman) sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thy(woman) shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. see now you would say we’ll he said shall, ok lets go the book of the end time called called revelation where it say that God has made us kings and priests unto God. doesnt a king rule. so this is now where the woman is suppose be ruled by her husband which is backed up in the epistle written by paul but authorized by God where he stated that the woman is to be subject unto her husband. so that also mean that the unmarried women should be subject unto her father bc the word said that when we married that we should no longer cleave unto our parents but the husband to his wife. i paraphrased that but it has the same meaning as the scripture. since when has a queen ruled over a king especially in the bible. if you look at its to protect the women from the enemy. eve was a perfect woman but yet the devil was able to decieve. today no one is perfect so how easy you think it is for the devil to decieve the woman today. God is trying to protect the women bc every commandment from God is good and holy which protects from all evil. all i can say is simply obey. eve didnt obey the commandment of God when he told her and adam not to eat off the tree but she did bc the devil tricked her making her think she can be like God even today the devil is trying to decieve woman telling her that she can be like man and teach when God has given woman a command through the apostle paul in 1st corinthians 14:34 and 1 timothy 2:11. dont be like eve as disobey and man dont be like adam and follow the woman bc you see what that caused to all the earth.

  • At 9:31 am on March 4, 2010, Dr Eleanor Phifer/Pastor commented:

    Why men fear women in Pastoral Positions?
    We won’t tell it all Trust Us! But we will tell the truth!
    “Three of those women became known as leaders among the group of women: Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of Joses, and Salome. Others include the woman unclean with her feminine infirmity, the despised Samaritan woman who asked Jesus for “the crumbs” for her daughter, and the woman who anointed Jesus. And there are many more.
    1. The significant aspect of every story about Jesus and the women he met is that Jesus crossed all lines of propriety—religious and social. He did not do what was “proper” according to his day. His very actions were a challenge to the cherished traditions of his own people.
    Jesus went so far as to commend women as examples of faith and spiritual vitality—women who were not counted in the number at synagogue, who were isolated to a separate court at the Temple, women whose religious vows could be overturned by their husbands. In fact, in Jesus’ culture where women were property and had no rights or privileges to call their own, it is surprising that the stories of these women were ever recorded and preserved in Scripture!”
    I dont think women are foolish enough to accept this Christian abuse if God had not ordained them to do what they are great at doing.

    Jesus came to fulfill the scripture, this is the part he fill in that man left out.

  • At 8:11 am on April 22, 2011, Bro. R.C. Willis commented:

    Well i must state that jewish women were counted in the synagogue there was a jewish mens court, a jewish womens court, and then there was a gentile or non-jewish court where the gentile women and men gathered together. I dont think that it was an attempt to opress because there was the holy of holies area in the temple that only the high priest was allowed to go and the other Priest were not allowed. I think it was simply order and every organization has to have order to function properly even the New Testament Church today must have order. Order not abuse, even on our jobs there are employees and supervisors, so God has chosen the Man to Lead his Church and the Woman is a great help meet to the Man. What are your thoughts

  • At 3:50 pm on March 19, 2010, Rebecca commented:

    Concerning women in leadership:

    According to Romans 16: 1-2 Phoebe is a deacon (the greek word diaconos has been translated into “servant”).

    Pls read Acts18,26: Husband AND wife Aquila and Priscilla give some guy deeper insight into Gods Word (“expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly”). That sounds like teaching to me.

    Romans 16:7, KJV King James Version
    “Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellowprisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.”

    It is quitel likely that Junia is a female name. So was she an apostle?

  • At 5:34 pm on March 19, 2010, Rebecca commented:

    I think one of the reasons why God allows women nowadays to be in position of authority (remember that all authority has been established by God, whether we like it or not), is, that men in the past until today have not only abused their power way too much, but very often they are satisfied with too simple solutions to very complex issues.

    Here we have the very elaborate teaching of Monica Dennington from TicToc Ministries about this subject. She looks into the original greek text and gets some interesting insights:
    Pls watch “Should Women Teach? … The Final Word” on

  • At 2:07 pm on May 14, 2010, Geeiona Bartlett commented:

    When interpreting the bible, I think one has to take into consideration

    the time period. Women had no rights back then. I think I Timothy 2:12 is an

    example of that. It is my understanding that the women of that time, having a

    new found freedom in God, began to blurt out questions and comments in church

    at the wrong times. This was not only a distraction, but also out of order. The

    man being the head, would have quite naturally been more educated in the word,

    and anything else for that matter. So it was only appropriate that any questionns

    or concerns the women had should be directed toward their husbands, on their

    own time.

    The Holy Spirit does not discriminate and GOD will use whomever He

    chooses to deliver His WORD. Anyone can be used if they will submit to HIM.

  • At 4:18 pm on June 21, 2010, debbie commented:

    Just wondering.. In Acts it talks about Phillips four daughters prophesying , what did that mean.. Were they preaching?

  • At 6:51 am on June 22, 2010, Bro R.C. Willis commented:

    Well the issue in 1 Tim 2:12 is reffering to women teaching men thus usurping authority over men in the office of pastor/bishop, Paul was teaching young tim what to look for in men that desire to be pastors. And yes some men are not qualified to be Pastors either that can’t fit the bill of those qualifications. But it doesn’t disqualify them from being preachers if they were called of God. Because every Pastor is a Preacher, but not Every Preacher has the qualifications to be a Pastor. Now to answer your question on Phillips daughters, they may have preached but certainly not in the assembly. Paul here was reffering to the office of Pastors/Bishops, I don’t think it was preaching the text was reffering to rather than teaching in the office of Pastor/Bishop. Which is not any different than the command for men to head the home, I dont think many women would reject that men should stand up and be the spiritual head of the family and if that be true and I know it is this is Gods will for the Church.

  • At 4:24 am on June 23, 2010, debbie commented:

    Ok, i see what you are saying, but if they were preaching , who were they preaching to?. The bible say , where there are one or two there am i also. so if you had two or ten, would it be an assembly? Why do men find it so hard to believe that God would want us to help spread the gospel. So if i am not in a building with a group of belivers i would be ok to preach? Like outside or at a park. But then again, the church is not the building, but a body of believers. Am i right here.. ? thank you for responding to my post. I do not believe that a women should hold an office in the church, but a preacher is a preacher, not an Elder unless appointed to be or a deacon unless appointed to be.. So if you are just a preacher, what would we be doing wrong?

  • At 11:06 am on June 26, 2010, Bro. R.C. Willis commented:

    Why do you want to preach ? Were you called by God to Preach the Gospel ? or is the desire there simply because men said you should not preach.

    If I might ask when did you recieve your call ? what was it like I am interested.

    I looked up the word Prophesy in the Webster’s Collegiate Thesaurus, A Merriam-Webster Copyright 1976, it gave some other related words like Foretell, Forecast, Soothsay, Vaticinate and the like but preaching did not come up once.
    This is the Strong’s Greek Definition for Prophesy:

    AV – prophesy 28; 28

    1) to prophesy, to be a prophet, speak forth by divine inspirations,
    to predict
    1a) to prophesy
    1b) with the idea of foretelling future events pertaining esp.
    to the kingdom of God
    1c) to utter forth, declare, a thing which can only be known
    by divine revelation
    1d) to break forth under sudden impulse in lofty discourse or
    praise of the divine counsels
    1d1) under like prompting, to teach, refute, reprove, admonish,
    comfort others
    1e) to act as a prophet, discharge the prophetic office

    Here are a list of Prophetesses in the bible:

    Miriam (Ex 15:20)

    Deborah (Jud 4:4)

    Huldah (2Kings 22:14)

    Noadiah (Ne 6:14)

    Anna (Lu 2:36)

    Daughters of Philip (Acts 21:9)

    You are right the assembly are the people not the building

    Every Preacher foretells of coming events in their message if they are preaching the Gospel for it tells of the coming of the Savior. So in a sense a Preacher does

    But the word Prophesy as in Acts 2:17 is not speaking of preaching but Prophesying.

    Here is an example of Prophesying by the Father of John the baptist Zacharias speaking of his son John the forerunner of Christ and the coming of Jesus Christ our salvation also, notice Luke 1:67-80:

    1:67 And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying,

    1:68 Blessed [be] the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people,

    1:69 And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David;

    1:70 As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began:

    1:71 That we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us;

    1:72 To perform the mercy [promised] to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant;

    1:73 The oath which he sware to our father Abraham,

    1:74 That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear,

    1:75 In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.

    1:76 And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways;

    1:77 To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins,

    1:78 Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us,

    1:79 To give light to them that sit in darkness and [in] the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace.

    1:80 And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his shewing unto Israel.

    I wonder if Zacharias was Praising (singing)

    I Hope this helps God Bless you dear sister.

    Bro. Willis (Gospel Preacher)

  • 1 2 3 4

Have your say:

Warning: Undefined variable $user_ID in /homepages/10/d116890420/htdocs/archshrk/wp-content/themes/treacle/comments.php on line 55

RSS feed for comments on this post. TrackBack URI

Which Something Positive character are you? | HOME | There I Find Delight: Psalm 119:1-8